R grepl Function


grepl returns TRUE if a string contains the pattern, otherwise FALSE; if the parameter is a string vector, returns a logical vector (match or not for each element of the vector).


grepl(pattern, x, ignore.case = FALSE, perl = FALSE,
      fixed = FALSE, useBytes = FALSE)

• pattern: regular expression, or string for fixed=TRUE
• x: string, the character vector
• ignore.case: case sensitive or not
• perl: logical. Should perl-compatible regexps be used? Has priority over extended
• fixed: logical. If TRUE, pattern is a string to be matched as is. Overrides all conflicting arguments
• useBytes: logical. If TRUE the matching is done byte-by-byte rather than character-by-character


> x <- "line 4322: He is now 25 years old, and weights 130lbs"
> y <- grepl("\\d+",x)
> y
[1] TRUE

> x <- "line 4322: He is now 25 years old, and weights 130lbs"
> y <- grepl("[[:digit:]]",x)
> y
[1] TRUE

Vector match:
>str <- c("Regular", "expression", "examples of R language")
>x <- grepl("x*ress",str)
>x
[1] FALSE TRUE FALSE


Regular Expression Syntax:

SyntaxDescription
\\dDigit, 0,1,2 ... 9
\\DNot Digit
\\sSpace
\\SNot Space
\\wWord
\\WNot Word
\\tTab
\\nNew line
^Beginning of the string
$End of the string
\Escape special characters, e.g. \\ is "\", \+ is "+"
|Alternation match. e.g. /(e|d)n/ matches "en" and "dn"
Any character, except \n or line terminator
[ab]a or b
[^ab]Any character except a and b
[0-9]All Digit
[A-Z]All uppercase A to Z letters
[a-z]All lowercase a to z letters
[A-z]All Uppercase and lowercase a to z letters
i+i at least one time
i*i zero or more times
i?i zero or 1 time
i{n}i occurs n times in sequence
i{n1,n2}i occurs n1 - n2 times in sequence
i{n1,n2}?non greedy match, see above example
i{n,}i occures >= n times
[:alnum:]Alphanumeric characters: [:alpha:] and [:digit:]
[:alpha:]Alphabetic characters: [:lower:] and [:upper:]
[:blank:]Blank characters: e.g. space, tab
[:cntrl:]Control characters
[:digit:]Digits: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
[:graph:]Graphical characters: [:alnum:] and [:punct:]
[:lower:]Lower-case letters in the current locale
[:print:]Printable characters: [:alnum:], [:punct:] and space
[:punct:]Punctuation character: ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . / : ; < = > ? @ [ \ ] ^ _ ` { | } ~
[:space:]Space characters: tab, newline, vertical tab, form feed, carriage return, space
[:upper:]Upper-case letters in the current locale
[:xdigit:]Hexadecimal digits: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F a b c d e f